50+ Earth Science Facts that will help you pass the mid-term
(these are not the only things you
need to know, but they will certainly help)
System uses factors of 10.† Meter for length, Gram for mass, Liter for
Deka meter deci centi
If converting within the metric system all you have to do is move the
decimal place over
methods knowledge acquired in science - Observation, measurement and
inference.† Measurement is the most objective
formula for density is D=m/v
same substance always has the same density.
to the Protoplanet Hypothesis the solar system began as a rotating cloud
of dust and gas that condensed and Earth originated about 5 billion years
ago.† The evidences are
All planets revolve around the sun
in the same direction
Most planets revolve around the sun
on the same axis
There is still left over material
in the solar system (meteors and comets)
best model of the earth's shape is a sphere. 3 pieces of evidence
shadow of earth on the moon during a lunar eclipse is spherical
position of the stars rotate slowly during the course of the night
mast of a ship will appear first over the horizon when a ship is traveling
true shape of the earth is an OBLATE SPHEROID.
determine the earth's circumference, the altitude of the sun at TWO
locations is needed.
lines go east-west, just like the equator, but measure distances north or
is based on observations of the sun.
lines go north-south, but measure distances east or west.
altitude of Polaris equals your latitude.
maps show lines of longitude and latitude crossing at right angles, but
distort land masses in the higher latitudes.
difference between true north and magnetic north varies with latitude and
is called magnetic declination.
closer isolines (contour-isobar-isotherm) are, the steeper the slope or
lines point upstream when crossing a stream.
telescopes only use lenses, reflecting telescopes use at least one mirror
in combination with a lens.
of a telescope depends upon the radius of the objective mirror or lens.
wavelength increases the frequency decreases.
the frequency the warmer the object, because more frequency means more
the energies of the electromagnetic spectrum travel at the same speed
(speed of light) in waves.
red shift of light is an indication that the star is moving away from us.
universe began with a big explosion--"The Big Bang" about 13-15
billion years ago.
Diagram compares temperature and luminosity (absolute magnitude) of stars,
and color is directly related to temperature.
Giants are cooler stars than white dwarfs.
starís light is produced by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into
helium.† This is true for our Sun too.
solar system is located on one of the outer arms of our Milky Way Galaxy,
a spiral galaxy.
Sun is a main sequence star, a stable state; and is expected to become a
red giant then a white dwarf.
are cooler areas on the Sunís surface, and go through a cycle every 11
you move away from the Sunís core the layers become cooler, with the odd
exception of the corona.
turning on an axis
movement of one body around another other = orbit
APPEAR to go backwards (retrograde) as the earth passes them in space.
Earth centered (proposed by Ptolemy);† Heliocentric: sun centered
(proposed by Copernicus)
was first to use a telescope to view the sky, and found evidence for the
heliocentric model of the solar system Ė the phases of Venus and 4 moons
closer a planet is to the sun the higher its velocity
farthest distance of a planet from the sun is the aphelion.
to Keplerís First Law, all orbits of planets are ellipses, and the more
ďovalĒ the more eccentric the orbit
2nd Law is the Equal Areas Law, and is used to determine speed
3rd Law is used to determine a planetís distance to the Sun or
its period of revolution.
- Newtonís Law of Universal Gravitation states that the
gravitation force between 2 objects is directly related to the mass and
distance between the 2 objects.
Unit is the Earthís average distance from the Sun, approximately 150
solar system contains 9 planets, their satellites, comets and asteroids.
planets aka Terrestrial Planets have a rocky crust, denser mantle layer,
very dense core, smaller in size, and fewer moons.
planets aka Jovian or Gas Planets are much larger, gaseous, much less
dense, colder, and have rings and more moons.
have highly eccentric orbits, are composed of ice and rock with tails that
point away from the Sun due to solar wind.
are rock/metal that mostly inhabit the space between the Inner and Outer
occur when meteoroids enter the Earthís atmosphere, and meteorites occur
only when they strike the Earthís surface.
pendulum and the coriolis effect prove the earth rotates
50. FOUCAULT'S PENDULUM: appears to change its direction of swing.
Summer solstice is June 21st
solstice is December 21st
is closest to the sun in January.
always has 12 hours of daylight.
March 21st† and September 23rd
earth revolves counterclockwise (365ľ days).
earth rotates west to east (24 hours).
lower the altitude of the sun, the longer shadows it casts.
rays (overhead sun) can only occur between 23 1/2oN (Tropic of
Cancer) and 23 1/2oS (Tropic of Capricorn)
axis is tilted 23 1/2o to the ecliptic plane.
period from one full moon to the next is 29.5 days, but the time it takes
for the moon to fully revolve around the Earth is 27.3 days.
moon has phases because of the angle at which we view its surface
(Remember though: half is always lit).
is the increase of the Moonís lighted surface; waning is the decrease of
the lighted surface
can only view the same side of the moon regardless of the phase because
the moon rotates at exactly the same speed it revolves around the Earth.
are caused by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun; with 2 high and
2 low tides occurring each 24 hour period.
tides only occur during new and full moons, neap tides occur at quarter
eclipse only occurs during full moon and is visible to more of the Earth
than a solar eclipse.
eclipse only occurs during new moon.