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Conceptual Chemistry (Chemcom) Final Exam Review Sheets

  1. Basics in Science
    1. Distinguish between the terms number, quantity and units of measure.
    2. Name and write the abbreviation of the SI (metric) unit for length, mass, time, and temperature; and derived units for volume and density.
    3. Demonstrate you know the metric prefixes, and can convert one metric unit into another.
    4. Prepare a graph from a table of data. The graph must contain all the information needed to interpret it. (labeled axes, appropriate scales, a legend, a title that describes the relationship)
    5. Calculate density by using the formula D = M / V. Given two variables, find the third.
  2. Describing Matter
    1. Explain that matter always contains mass and volume, regardless of its state.
    2. Explain that matter exists in 3 states; solid, liquid and gas; and use models to describe the differences.
    3. Explain all matter is made of atoms. Atoms contain protons, neutrons and electrons.
      1. Identify the characteristics of the following subatomic particles: proton, neutron and electron.
    4. Explain that atoms combined together form molecules.
    5. Describe the attractive forces between atoms as bonds.
      1. Atoms of different elements lose and gain electrons with each other. The resulting charged atoms are called ions. These attractions between ions with opposite charges are called ionic bonds.
      2. Atoms of the same kind and atoms that are similar to each other often share pairs of electrons between them. The shared electrons are called a covalent bond.
    6. Indicate whether an observed change in matter is chemical or physical change. Be able to provide specific examples of each. Describe chemical and physical properties of matter.
    7. List and discuss the signs of a chemical reaction including:
      1. Production of heat
      2. Production of light
      3. Production of a precipitate
      4. Production of a gas
    8. Recognize the properties and characteristics that can be used to determine whether matter is a pure substance (elements & compounds) or a mixture.
    9. Identify homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
    10. Identify elements, mixtures, and compounds.
  3. Chemical Reactions and Equations
    1. Explain the Law of Conservation of Mass, and relate it to the balancing of chemical equations.
    2. Use chemical symbols and our list of ions to write correct chemical formulas for ionic compounds.
      1. Remember: use the criss-cross method to determine the lowest common denominator for each ion; and change the subscript accordingly.
    3. Write and balance a chemical equation when provided with the formulas of the reactants and products.
      1. Calculate the number of atoms of every element on both sides of the equation. To balance the equation, both sides must have the same number of atoms of each element.
      2. Remember: When balancing equations, balance the equation by changing only the coefficients in front of formulas. Never change the subscripts.
    4. Be able to identify which atoms gain or lose electrons in an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction.
      1. Remember: LEO goes GER. Loss of electrons is oxidation, Gain of electrons is reduction. (For example: if an element loses electrons it becomes an ion)
    5. Recognize that oxidizing of metals generates and oxide coating; known as rust on iron and steel, and known as patina on copper and brass.
  4. The Periodic Table
    1. Explain the layout or the Periodic Table including: metals, metalloids, non-metals, group names including alkali metals, alkali earth metals, transition elements, halogens, noble gases.
    2. Describe the trends in both a group and a period.
      1. Remember: The most reactive metals are in Groups 1 & 2, and the most reactive non-metals in Group 17.
      2. Remember the unique qualities of metals – conductivity, luster, ductility, malleability.
      3. Remember the qualities of metalloids and non-metals.
    3. Explain the Octet Rule, aka nirvana for an atom – their desire to have 8 electrons in the outer shell (with the exception of H, He).
  5. Acids and Bases
    1. Explain the difference between acids, bases and neutral solutions in terms of the pH scale (0-14).
    2. Describe indicators of pH change such as litmus paper (red in acid, blue in base) or red cabbage juice.
  6. Solubility
    1. Define and explain the terms solute and solvent.
    2. Calculate the solubility of a solid or gas in water by using a solubility curve.
    3. Understand that the solubility of most solids in water increase with increases in temperature, and the solubility of gases decreases with increases in temperature.
    4. Identify saturated solutions as the maximum amount of solute in a solvent under normal conditions (on the curve), a supersaturated solution is above the curve, and an unsaturated solution is below the curve.
  7. Molar Relationships
    1. Define or explain the term mole.
    2. Demonstrate an understanding of the following terms: atomic number, atomic mass, molar mass (also known as formula mass).
    3. Calculate the molar mass (formula mass) of any chemical formula.
    4. Calculate the percent composition of a chemical compound.
  8. Hydrocarbons
    1. Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.
    2. Describe the effect of the number of carbon atoms, and branching (isomers) on boiling point of alkanes.
    3. Describe the 2 main uses of petroleum as burning for energy, and building other products, and realize that most petroleum is used an energy source.
    4. Explain the distillation of crude oil into petroleum fractions of varying boiling points.
    5. Explain that viscosity is resistance to flow; and petroleum fractions with more carbon atoms are more viscous – they flow more slowly.
    6. Calculate the molecular formula of an alkane using the formula CnH2n+2 .
    7. Use 3 methods of describing formulas for hydrocarbons; molecular, structural and Lewis Dot.
    8. Demonstrate you know the chemical equation for combustion of any hydrocarbon, and are able to balance it including energy.
    9. Show that a chemical reaction is either exothermic or endothermic by placing the energy on either the right or left-hand side of the chemical equation.
    10. Calculate energy in KJ released during combustion.
  9. Nuclear Energy
    1. Explain what is electromagnetic radiation, and provide specific examples.
    2. Characterize the 2 extreme ends of the electromagnetic spectrum as low energy, low frequency, long wavelength vs. high energy, high frequency, short wavelength.
    3. Explain what an isotope is and be able to describe atomic structure when provided with a nuclear symbol for a specific isotope. For example: 12C and 14C.
    4. Explain radioactive decay.
  10. Links to the Environment
    1. Understand that metal ores and crude oil are examples of non-renewable resources because they cannot be replenished by the Earth; while trees and water are considered renewable resources.
    2. Understand how solar energy (radiant energy) drives the water cycle on Earth, and is the basic source of energy for much of our world.
    3. Understand that because of the Law of Conservation of Matter, recycling is a matter reusing the atoms of a substance again; something that cannot be done when we burn petroleum products for energy.
    4. Understand that because of the Law of Conservation of Matter, we cannot create a different element by reacting several elements together, only a new compound. As demonstrated when we tried to make gold pennies from zinc and copper.