Conceptual Chemistry (Chemcom) Final Exam Review Sheets
Basics in Science
Distinguish between the terms number, quantity and units of measure.
Name and write the abbreviation of the SI (metric) unit for length, mass, time,
and temperature; and derived units for volume and density.
Demonstrate you know the metric prefixes, and can convert one metric unit into another.
Prepare a graph from a table of data. The graph must contain all the information
needed to interpret it. (labeled axes, appropriate scales, a legend, a title that
describes the relationship)
Calculate density by using the formula D = M / V. Given two variables,
find the third.
Explain that matter always contains mass and volume, regardless of its state.
Explain that matter exists in 3 states; solid, liquid and gas; and use models
to describe the differences.
Explain all matter is made of atoms. Atoms contain protons, neutrons and
Identify the characteristics of the following subatomic particles: proton, neutron
Explain that atoms combined together form molecules.
Describe the attractive forces between atoms as bonds.
Atoms of different elements lose and gain electrons with each other. The resulting charged
atoms are called ions. These attractions between ions with opposite charges are
called ionic bonds.
Atoms of the same kind and atoms that are similar to each other often share pairs of
electrons between them. The shared electrons are called a covalent bond.
Indicate whether an observed change in matter is chemical or physical change.
Be able to provide specific examples of each. Describe chemical and physical
properties of matter.
List and discuss the signs of a chemical reaction including:
Production of heat
Production of light
Production of a precipitate
Production of a gas
Recognize the properties and characteristics that can be used to determine whether
matter is a pure substance (elements & compounds) or a mixture.
Identify homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
Identify elements, mixtures, and compounds.
Chemical Reactions and Equations
Explain the Law of Conservation of Mass, and relate it to the balancing of
Use chemical symbols and our list of ions to write correct chemical
formulas for ionic compounds.
Remember: use the criss-cross method to determine the lowest common denominator for each
ion; and change the subscript accordingly.
Write and balance a chemical equation when provided with the formulas of the reactants
Calculate the number of atoms of every element on both sides of the equation. To balance
the equation, both sides must have the same number of atoms of each element.
Remember: When balancing equations, balance the equation by changing only the coefficients
in front of formulas. Never change the subscripts.
Be able to identify which atoms gain or lose electrons in an oxidation-reduction (redox)
Remember: LEO goes GER. Loss of electrons is oxidation, Gain of electrons is
reduction. (For example: if an element loses electrons it becomes an ion)
Recognize that oxidizing of metals generates and oxide coating; known as rust
on iron and steel, and known as patina on copper and brass.
The Periodic Table
Explain the layout or the Periodic Table including: metals, metalloids,
non-metals, group names including alkali metals, alkali earth metals,
transition elements, halogens, noble gases.
Describe the trends in both a group and a period.
Remember: The most reactive metals are in Groups 1 & 2, and the most reactive
non-metals in Group 17.
Remember the unique qualities of metals conductivity, luster, ductility,
Remember the qualities of metalloids and non-metals.
Explain the Octet Rule, aka nirvana for an atom their desire to have 8
electrons in the outer shell (with the exception of H, He).
Acids and Bases
Explain the difference between acids, bases and neutral solutions in terms of the pH
Describe indicators of pH change such as litmus paper (red in acid, blue in base) or red
Define and explain the terms solute and solvent.
Calculate the solubility of a solid or gas in water by using a solubility curve.
Understand that the solubility of most solids in water increase with increases in
temperature, and the solubility of gases decreases with increases in temperature.
Identify saturated solutions as the maximum amount of solute in a solvent under
normal conditions (on the curve), a supersaturated solution is above the curve, and
an unsaturated solution is below the curve.
Define or explain the term mole.
Demonstrate an understanding of the following terms: atomic number, atomic
mass, molar mass (also known as formula mass).
Calculate the molar mass (formula mass) of any chemical formula.
Calculate the percent composition of a chemical compound.
Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between alkanes, alkenes,
Describe the effect of the number of carbon atoms, and branching (isomers) on
boiling point of alkanes.
Describe the 2 main uses of petroleum as burning for energy, and building other
products, and realize that most petroleum is used an energy source.
Explain the distillation of crude oil into petroleum fractions of varying
Explain that viscosity is resistance to flow; and petroleum fractions with more
carbon atoms are more viscous they flow more slowly.
Calculate the molecular formula of an alkane using the formula CnH2n+2 .
Use 3 methods of describing formulas for hydrocarbons; molecular, structural
and Lewis Dot.
Demonstrate you know the chemical equation for combustion of any hydrocarbon,
and are able to balance it including energy.
Show that a chemical reaction is either exothermic or endothermic by
placing the energy on either the right or left-hand side of the chemical equation.
Calculate energy in KJ released during combustion.
Explain what is electromagnetic radiation, and provide specific examples.
Characterize the 2 extreme ends of the electromagnetic spectrum as low energy, low
frequency, long wavelength vs. high energy, high frequency, short wavelength.
Explain what an isotope is and be able to describe atomic structure when provided
with a nuclear symbol for a specific isotope. For example: 12C and 14C.
Explain radioactive decay.
Links to the Environment
Understand that metal ores and crude oil are examples of non-renewable resources
because they cannot be replenished by the Earth; while trees and water are considered renewable
Understand how solar energy (radiant energy) drives the water cycle on Earth, and is the
basic source of energy for much of our world.
Understand that because of the Law of Conservation of Matter, recycling is a matter
reusing the atoms of a substance again; something that cannot be done when we burn
petroleum products for energy.
Understand that because of the Law of Conservation of Matter, we cannot create a
different element by reacting several elements together, only a new compound. As
demonstrated when we tried to make gold pennies from zinc and copper.