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From CAPT Science Handbook – 2nd generation
Connecticut State Board of Education – 2001

Earth Science

  1. Astronomy – as a result of learning about the solar system and the universe:
    1. Students understand the structure, motion and composition of stars, planets and other bodies with an emphasis on our solar system.
      1. Describe the orientation, direction and duration of the movement of the Earth around its axis and around the sun and relate these to day/night cycles and the seasons.
      2. Explain how the changes in the relative position of the sun, moon and Earth affec the phases of the moon and eclipses, and describe ocean tidal variations.
      3. Describe our solar system, including estimated size, composition and surface features of the sun, planets and lesser members.
      4. Explain how astronomers collect and interpret information to determine the motion, structure and composition of stars.
  2. Earth’s Natural Resources – as a result of studying Earth’s natural resources:
    1. Students understand that the Earth has various natural resources important to all living organisms.
      1. Describe how essential natural resources (i.e. air, water, soil and minerals) vary in their abundance, and explain the importance of conservation and recycling of natural resources.
      2. Describe sources of fresh water and the importance of water to life.
    2. Students understand the use of Earth’s natural resources by humans.
      1. Describe renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy and the advantages and disadvantages of their use.
      2. Use maps to identify geological features and determine locations, scales and directions.
  3. Meteorology – as a result of studying Earth’s weather and climate patterns:
    1. Students understand that our atmosphere is dynamic and has patterns of weather systems.
      1. Explain how winds originate and are affected by the unequal heating of the Earth’s surface, the rotation of the Earth, and the distribution of land and water surfaces.
      2. Explain the water cycle and the energy that drives it.
      3. Explain how meteorologists collect and interpret meteorological data from various sources.
    2. Students understand the reasons for the distribution of climates around the world.
      1. Explain how regional climates are determined by energy transfer from the sun and are influenced by cloud cover, the Earth’s rotation, oceans and mountains.
      2. Explain the possible causes and effects of global phenomena including El Nino, global warming and ozone depletion.
  4. Earth History and Dynamics – as a result of studying the composition of the Earth and the changes it undergoes:
    1. Students understand interactions among the Earth’s lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
      1. Describe how plate tectonics is related to the interior composition of the Earth, including its core, mantle and crust, and relate it to major geological events, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and mountain building.
      2. Explain how the formation, weathering, sedimentation and reformation of rock constitute a continuing rock cycle.
      3. Describe how waves, wind, water and ice shape the Earth’s land surface.
      4. Describe how geological history and major time periods can be determined using evidence from fossils and rock sequences.